Recommended settings for Wi-Fi routers and access points
For the Wi-Fi router settings (or Wi-Fi base station) below shall apply to all Mac and iOS devices. With these settings, performance, security and reliability will be optimal when using the Wi-Fi.
This article is intended for network administrators and users to manage their network. If you try to access a Wi-Fi network, you may find it helpful to one of the following items:
Mac: Connect to the Internet and checks for problems related to Wi-Fi
iPhone, iPad, iPod touch: Access to a Wi-Fi network and solve problems related to Wi-Fi
Before changing these settings, follow these steps:
Make sure the Wi-Fi router firmware is up to date. AirPort Time Capsule, AirPort Extreme or AirPort Express Base Station, verify the latest firmware via the AirPort Utility .
Make sure your Wi-Fi devices support the settings recommended by the article.
If possible, back up the settings of the Wi-Fi router.
Disable or remove the Wi-Fi settings to the network from any device connected to your Wi-Fi router. In this way, you will avoid that the devices connect to the network with the old configuration. After you apply the new settings, you will need to re-connect the devices to the network.
Configure all Wi-Fi router on the same network with the same settings, otherwise the devices may experience difficulty connecting to the network or the network may become unreliable.
If you use a Wi-Fi router dual band, established that both bands have the same settings, unless otherwise indicated below.
SSID or name of the Wi-Fi network
The SSID (Service Set Identifier), which is the network name, identifies your Wi-Fi network to users and other Wi-Fi devices and provides case-sensitive.
Set to: any unique name
Associates your network a unique name that is not shared by other nearby networks or that you can detect. If the router is shipped with a default SSID, it is particularly important that you use a different unique name. Some common default SSID names to avoid are linksys , netgear , dlink , wireless , 2wire and default .
If the SSID is not unique, the Wi-Fi devices will be unable to identify the network. This may make it impossible to automatically connect to your network or other networks with the same SSID. It is also possible that the Wi-Fi devices are not able to use all of the routers on the network or all the available bands.
Hidden networks do not broadcast the SSID over Wi-Fi. This option could also be called as a network mistakenly closed networks and their status no secret could be defined as broadcast or opened .
Set to: Disabled
Because hidden networks do not broadcast the SSID, it is more difficult to detect devices, which could result in longer connection times and reduce the reliability of the automatic connection function. Hiding a network does not protect the Wi-Fi network, because the SSID is still available in other ways.
Authentication or MAC address filtering
Restricts access to a Wi-Fi router for devices with MAC address (Media Access Control) specific.
Set to: Disabled
If enabled, this feature allows the user to configure a list of MAC addresses for the Wi-Fi router and allows access to devices whose address is listed. The devices whose MAC address is not on the list can not be associated with the Wi-Fi network. It is easy to change a MAC address, so do not rely on this system to avoid unauthorized access to the network.
In iOS 8 and later is used a random MAC address during the Wi-Fi scans. Scans are performed when a device is not associated with a Wi-Fi network and its processor is in sleep mode. The device enters sleep mode processor moments after the screen turns off. The Wi-Fi scans are done to determine whether a user can connect to a preferred Wi-Fi network. The advanced Wi-Fi scans are performed when a device uses location services for apps that use of geofencing, as reminders based on location, which allows you to determine if the device is located near a specific location.
The security setting controls the type of authentication and encryption used by the Wi-Fi router, which allows you to control access to the network and specify the level of privacy for the data you send over the network.
Set on WPA2 Personal (AES)
WPA2 Personal (AES) is currently the highest level of security available for Wi-Fi products and is recommended for any form of use. When you activate WPA2, make sure to select a secure password that is not detectable by third parties.
If you have older Wi-Fi devices that do not support WPA2 Personal (AES), another good option is the use of WPA / WPA2 mode, also called mixed mode WPA. This mode allows newer devices to use the safest and at the same WPA2 AES encryption enables those older to connect through the old WPA-TKIP encryption. If the Wi-Fi router does not support WPA / WPA2 Mode, WPA Personal (TKIP) is the best alternative choice.
For reasons of reliability, compatibility, performance , and security, WEP is not recommended. It is given that it comes to an unsafe function and obsolete. If you have to choose between WEP and TKIP, opt for TKIP.
Due to major flaws in protection mechanisms, the WEP and WPA TKIP encryption methods they are considered inefficient and are therefore not recommended. Use this mode only if required to support legacy Wi-Fi devices that are not compatible or upgradeable to WPA2 AES mode. Devices that use these inefficient methods of encryption can not take full advantage of the performance 802.11n and other functions. As a result, Wi-Fi Alliance has pushed the Wi-Fi industry to phase out WEP and WPA TKIP methods.
If the security setting is None or non-secure mode, it means that you are not using any type of authentication or encryption: anyone can access your Wi-Fi network, use your Internet connection, access to shared resources on the network and see what send over the network. You should not use an unsecured network.
radio mode at 2.4 GHz
This setting controls which versions of the 802.11a / b / g / n standards are used by the network for communication in wireless mode on the 2.4 GHz band. The most recent standard (802.11n) support faster transfer speeds, while more Oldest provide compatibility with older devices and additional features.
Set to: 802.11b / g / n
Routers that support 802.11n should be configured for maximum speed and compatibility with 802.11b / g / n. Routers that only support the 802.11g standard can be set in 802.11b / g mode. The routers that support only 802.11b can be left in 802.11b mode. Since Wi-Fi router supports several different radio mode, this setting varies depending on the router. In general, it is appropriate that all modes are supported. In this way, the devices can automatically select the fastest mode supported by all. The selection of a subset of available mode prevents some devices to connect. For example, 802.11b / g devices can not connect to a Wi-Fi router set only 802.11n mode. Also, choose a subset of the available modes may cause interference with legacy networks in the vicinity, as well as interference of neighboring legacy devices with the network.
radio mode at 5 GHz
This setting controls such as 802.11a / b / g / n standard versions are used by the network to communicate wirelessly on the 5 GHz band. The most recent standards support faster transfer speeds, while the older ones provide compatibility with devices older and additional features.
Set to: 802.11a / n
Routers that support 802.11n should be configured for maximum speed and compatibility with 802.11a / n. Routers that only support 802.11a can be left in 802.11a mode. Since Wi-Fi router supports several different radio mode, this setting varies depending on the router. In general, it is appropriate that all modes are supported. In this way, the devices can automatically select the fastest mode supported by all. Selecting a subset of the available modes prevents the older devices to connect. For example, 802.11a devices can not connect to a Wi-Fi router set only 802.11n mode. Also, choose a subset of the available modes may cause interference with legacy networks in the vicinity, as well as interference of neighboring legacy devices with the network.
This setting controls the channels for which you need the Wi-Fi router to communicate.
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For best performance, choose "Auto" mode and let the Wi-Fi router select the best channel. If your router does not support this mode, you choose a free channel from other Wi-Fi routers and other sources of interference. Read the information on the possible sources of interference .
Width of the channel at 2.4 GHz
The channel width controls how large the "conduit" needed to transfer data. However, the wider channels are more prone to suffer and cause interference with other devices. The 40 MHz channels are defined also large, while those at 20 MHz are defined narrow.
Set on 20 MHz
In the 2.4 GHz band using 20 MHz channels. The use of 40 MHz channels in the 2.4 GHz band can cause performance and reliability issues with your network, especially in the presence of other Wi-Fi networks and other devices at 2.4 GHz. in addition, the 40 GHz channels could cause interference problems with other devices that use this band, such as Bluetooth devices, cordless phones, Wi-Fi networks nearby and so on . Routers that do not support 40 MHz channels in the 2.4 GHz band, however, support those at 20 MHz.
Width of the channel at 5 GHz
The channel width controls how large the "conduit" needed to transfer data. The wider channels are more prone to suffer and cause interference with other devices. Interference is less of a problem in the case of the 5 GHz band with respect to the 2.4 GHz band. The 40 MHz channels are defined too large, while those at 20 MHz are defined narrow.
For 802.11n Access Points, set the 5 GHz band to 20 and 40 MHz.
For 802.11ac access points, set the 5 GHz band to 20, 40 and 80 MHz.
For optimal performance and reliability, it is necessary to support all channel widths. In this way the devices will use the widest width supported, determining optimum performance and compatibility. Not all client devices support 40 MHz channels, so not only enable the 40 MHz mode. Devices that support only 20 MHz channels can not connect to a Wi-Fi router in 40 MHz mode only. Similarly, do not enable the 80 MHz mode, otherwise only the 802.11ac client will be able to connect. Routers that do not support channels 40 or 80 MHz, however, support those at 20 MHz.
The DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) assigns addresses that identify devices on the network. Once assigned, devices use these addresses to communicate with each other and with computers on the internet. The functionality of a DHCP server can be compared to that of a telephone company that assigns phone numbers used later by customers to call other people.
Set to: On, if it is the only DHCP server on the network
Must be only one DHCP server on the network. The DHCP server may be integrated into the cable modem, the DSL modem or router. If DHCP is enabled on more than one device, it will encounter address conflicts and problems of access to the internet or other network resources.
NAT (Network Address Translation) translates the addresses on the internet and those on the local network. To understand the function of a NAT provider you can think of an attendant to the management of the mail, which replaces the company's address and the name of the employee in the incoming message with the office number of destination. In this way, people outside the company will be able to send information to a specific person in the building.
Set to: On, if it is the only router to provide NAT services on the network
In general, you should enable the NAT function only on the device that acts as a router in the network, which is usually the cable or DSL modem or a standalone router, which could also function as a Wi-Fi router. The use of NAT function on multiple devices (called double-NAT) can cause problems of access to Internet services such as gaming, VoIP and VPN, and in communications between different levels of NAT on the local network.
WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia) prioritizes network traffic according to four access categories: voice, video, best effort and background.
All access points 802.11n and 802.11ac should have WMM enabled in their default configuration. Disabling WMM can cause problems for the entire network, not just the Apple products on the network itself.
In some countries, the regulations governing the strength of the wireless signal and the use of Wi-Fi channels. When traveling abroad, make sure location services are turned on to allow the connection to Wi-Fi networks in the country where you are.
Choose Apple menu> System Preferences and click Security & Privacy.
Click the corner of the box, then enter your password.
In the Privacy panel, first select Enable Location Services and then "Location Services".
Scroll to the bottom of the list of apps and services, and then click the Details button next to System Services.
In the Details dialog box, select Network Wi-Fi.
On the iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch:
Go to Settings> Privacy, and then activates Localization.
Scroll to the bottom of the list, touch System Services and Active Network Wi-Fi.
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